The major application is to optimize a material’s resistance towards corrosion. While these copper rod and key are immersed into copper-sulfate solution, the copper rod will behave as anode and the key will behave as cathode. Let’s take an example of brass key which is to be copper-platted by using copper electroplating. Applications of the energy sources 1. In both cases, though, the … The cathode is the metal that needs to be plated. Electroplating is a general name for processes that create a metal coating on a solid substrate through the reduction of cations of that metal by means of a direct electric current.The part to be coated acts as the cathode (negative electrode) of an electrolytic cell; the electrolyte is a solution of a salt of the metal to be coated; and the anode (positive electrode) is usually either a block of that metal, or of some inert … In addition, metal dust is generated which may pose respiratory hazards. Electroplating is used in various industries to coat metal objects with a thin layer of a different metal. This Market report covers technical data, manufacturing plants analysis, and raw material sources analysis of Electroplating Grade ABS Industry as well as explains which product has the highest penetration, their profit margins and many other things because chromium is very corrosion resistant, and increases Palladium plating is used in the manufacturing of catalytic converters due … As the cathode or the brass key is connected with negative terminal of battery, it will attract the positive cations or Cu+ + ions and on reaching of Cu+ + ions on the surface of the brass key, they will receive electrons from it, become neutral copper atom and are about to be deposited on the surface of the brass key as uniform layer. The positive copper ion (Cu+ +) or cations will move towards negative electrode made of pure copper where it takes electrons from cathode, and becomes Cu atom and is deposited on the graphite surface of the cathode. NB :- In the process of electrolytic refining of metals or simply electro refining, the cathode is coated by graphite so that the chemical deposited, can be easily stripped off. Electroplating is majorly applied to modify the surface features of an object (e.g corrosion protection, lubricity, abrasion), but the process can also be used to build thickness or make objects by electro forming. Two important applications for copper plating are on TSV and LCD panels. The pure copper rod is connected with positive terminal and the brass key is connected with negative terminal of a battery. There are different processes by which people can electroplate metals such as by mass plating (also barrel plating), rack plating, continuous plating, and line plating. We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites. Model of the electroplating of a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). Sources_of_waste In electroplating facilities the wastes are derived from the material plated (discussed in Section IV) and the operating solutions. Some of the other common applications of electroplating involve: Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) … Gold plating is long lasting over a base of gold. In 1954, EPi created the E-Brite 23-11, a single-additive cyanide copper process, and in 1961, it continued pioneering the single-additive nickel-plating process with the E-Brite 717. Talking about the uses of electroplating, apart from enhancing the appearance of the substrate it is used in various other purposes as well. Electroplating is the process of producing a coating on a surface by the action of electric current. Electrolysis is used to separate electrolyte components by the electric current, Electrolytic cells are used in Electroplating, Purification of metals, Extraction of aluminum from bauxite, Electroplating is the process of the formation of a thin layer in a certain metal on the surface of another metal to give it a nice shiny view or to protect it from corrosion. Electroplating, mining, and textile industries are the major sources of the copper-containing wastewater. Then this mold is dipped into a blue vitriol electrolyte as cathode. No single or decorative plating sales will be accepted. This wax mold is then coated with gold powder to make it conducting. Reproduction of objects by electro-deposition on some sort of mould is known as electroforming. It is mainly different from electroplating by not using external electrical power. Then the mold is dipped into the electrolyte solution as cathode. The Application … Electroplating is very useful in different industries. The company was the first to develop a production-proven, non-cyanide, non-pyrophosphate alkaline … Electroplating and electrolessplating can be used to create a protective coating for materials that will be used in the medical field. While similar to copper fill for back-end-of-line (BEOL) interconnects, electroplating for WLP and TSV is at a much larger scale. For instance, chromium plating is done ing coating material for various electric connectors and terminals. The process of electrolytic refining of metalsis used to extract impurities from crude metals. There are complexes that find the application of coordination compounds in photography. Plating methods, a survey Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. The Li-SEI model considering a three-dimensional diffusion-controlled instantaneous process (J3D-DC) with the simultaneous reduction of electrolyte decomposition (JSEI) due to the SEI fracture is employed for investigating the Li nucleation and growth mechanism. Therefore, the total time employed is the sum of t a and t b: . The principal ionic constituents of … the life of the parts. In this way, the copper of impure crude will be transferred and deposited on the graphite surface of the cathode. This often requires long deposition times, even at high … [7–10] The present study is aimed at exploring a new application of the multilayered Sn/Ag film on Cu alloy as potential LED reflective material with low cost and high The Plating Equipment Market research Reports offers an extensive collection of reports on different markets covering crucial details. You can specify conditions of storing and accessing cookies in your browser. Chromium is also used in rims of wheels and zinc is also plated on various machinery parts. The error in measurement of its area is​, ANYONE REMEMBER ME???? For understanding the process of electrolytic refining of metals, we will discuss about an example of electrolytic refining of copper. The absorber is usually a sheet of high-thermal- conductivity metal with tubes or … Cyanide-free acidic silver electroplating compositions include one or more acids or salts of tellurium and may be used to electroplate matte silver deposits on metals, such as nickel, copper or copper Other examples of electroplating applications are: Steel parts such as camshafts, crankshafts, and hand tools resists wear better when they are electroplated with chromium. Adding gold uses a chemical and electrical process called electroplating. Nickle is used in decorative items, cars, and machinery parts. 13.7 Applications of electrochemistry (ESCRP) Electrochemistry has a number of different uses, particularly in industry. The cathode is the metal that needs to be plated. For that, first we have to take the impression of objects on wax or on other wax like material. A method for measuring the density of a current during an electroplating process in an electroplating bath, wherein a voltage is measured by a voltmeter, positioned outside the bath, immediately betwe NB :- In the process of electrolytic refining of metals or simply electro refining, the cathode is coated by graphite so that the chemical deposited, can be easily stripped off. Electroplating has thousands of uses especially in industry. Plating has been done for hundreds of years; it is also critical for modern technology. Electroplating Market Size, Share, Opportunities And Trends By Type Of Metal (Gold, Silver, Platinum, Rhodium, Aluminum, Chromium, Nickel, Copper, Others), By Type Of Plating (Mass Plating, Rack Plating, Continuous Plating, Line Plating), By Application (Corrosion Protection, Decoration, Electrical And Electronics, Others), By Industry Vertical (Automotive, Electrical And Electronics, Aerospace And … This translates to gold plating over silver lasting longer than gold plating over various base metals. Electroplating can also be used to improve the appearance of metals. Electroplating is used in various commercial appliances. Among the various sources of heavy metal pollution, electroplating industries are of paramount concern. The Many Applications of Electroplating. Nickel-containing products play an important role in our daily lives. Disclaimer: Sharretts Plating does gold plating on industrial applications in large volumes. The results show the electric field lines and the thickness of the plated copper circuits in the PCB. This Market report covers technical data, manufacturing plants analysis, and raw material sources analysis of Electroplating Grade ABS Industry as well as explains which product has the highest penetration, their profit margins, and R&D status. For copper electroplating, we use copper sulfate solution as electrolyte, pure copper as anode and an object (a brass key) as cathode. Electrical4U is dedicated to the teaching and sharing of all things related to electrical and electronics engineering. The report studies the competitive environment of the Plating Equipment Market is based on company profiles and their … 8. Prevention/Solution. In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores chemical energy and makes it available in an electrical form. A cell consists of two electrodes (conductors), usually made of metal, which are held apart from one another. 4 Reasonable average labor times of electroplating processes or different productions contexts (surface areas of the part, production volume).. 1 Values set according to a discussion with Peter Leisner.. Electroplating is generally done for two quite different reasons: decoration and protection. Such a feature adds to bath lifetime and permits better control of bath chemistry and plating quality during the electroplating process. Electroplating is something you can easily experiment with at school or (with the help of an adult) at home. These explosions can then spread fire to the plastic vent systems that surround the typical chemical holding tank. Electroplating of copper and other metals is used for a number of advanced wafer level packaging (WLP) applications, such as forming conductive bumps, pillars, and redistribution layers, and for filling through-silicon vias (TSVs). Electroplating can offer a number of important features and benefits that can help you improve the quality of your manufacturing processes and enhance your competitive position in the marketplace. Electroplating involves heterogeneous nucleation, whereas NP synthesis is a homogeneous phenomenon preferentially occurring through instantaneous nucleation. During electrolysis process, the electrolyte metal will be deposited on the graphite coated impressed surface of the mold. Over the years, we have developed and perfected our industrial electroplating processes that make use of various metals and metal alloys to achieve the desired result for our customers. Electroplating reagents and assisted means can be introduced into LMBs to guide and evolve dendrite‐free and high‐efficiency Li plating/stripping or Li metal anodes. Market Study Report, LLC, has added the latest research on ' Electroplating Apparatus market', which offers a concise outline of the market valuation, industry size, SWOT analysis, revenue approximation, and the regional outlook of this business vertical. After obtaining a layer of desired thickness, the article is removed and the wax is melted to get the reproduced object in form of metal shell. The metallic impurities of anode are also merged with SO4, forming metallic sulfate and dissolve in the electrolyte solution. The layer of metal which is deposited possesses some desired property, that the metal of the object does not have. Plating is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface. Other metals used for electroplating include Copper extracted from its ore, known as blister copper, is 98 to 99 % pure but it can easily be made up to 99.95% pure for electrical application by the process of electrorefining. If you're considering using electroplating in your next manufacturing process, you need to know how the process works and what material and process … The current transients at various overpotentials initiate the nucleation and growth of Li metal on bare Cu foil. Several organic plating … Nanotechnology is widely considered to constitute the basis of the next technological revolution, following on from the first Industrial Revolution, which began around 1750 with the introduction of the steam engine and … These reflective properties have made gold plating an integral part of spacecraft and satellite design. Electroplating on plastic is also used for chrome-plating the lightweight but sturdy parts that are a staple of the modern automobile. In gravure printing, electroplating is the means by which a gravure cylinder is first coated with a layer of copper (which will be engraved with the cells transferring the image; see Gravure Engraving ) and then by a thin protective layer of chrome. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) makes the bath conductive and acts as a charge carrier. Numerous industries use electroplating to make everything from engagement rings to electrical antennas. Applications of Different Energy sources 2. Commercial applications. Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis. These positive copper ions (Cu+ +) will then move towards negative electrode where it takes electrons from cathode, and become Cu atoms and are deposited on the graphite surface of the cathode. So whatever metal is being used for the base in gold plating, it plays a significant role in how long the plating treatment will last. EDTA is another complex compound we use for the determination of hardness of water. The report published by Zeal Insider titled “Global and Regional Electroplating Market- Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, 2013 – 2026” provides a comprehensive overview of the market findings to analyze the impact of COVID-19. The principles of cells are used to make electrical batteries. For proper and uniform copper plating, the object (here it is brass key) is being rotated slowly into the solution. This is another very useful example among many applications of electrolysis. The copper electroforming on the wax mold produces master plate which is used to stamp a large number of shellac discs. You may see this referred to as Au plating or Au electroplating, because the symbol for gold on the periodic table of elements is … This is an essential difference to the relatively coarse grained, mechanically stable, adhesive deposits of high purity required in electrowinning and … T = t a + t b [min/part]. At a regular interval of electrolytic refining of copper, the deposited copper is stripped out from the cathode and anode & is replaced by a new block of crude copper. The process of electroplating is theoretically same as electrorefining – only difference is that, in place of graphite coated cathode we have to place an object on which the electroplating has to be done. The basic parts noted are a full-aperture absorber, transparent or translucent cover sheets, and an insulated box. yeh sab baate mujhe tujhe suna chahiye tha ... but tu mujhe suna rha hai ...​, The muptiplication of 10.610 with 0.210 up to correct number of significant figure is​, 71.A solid cylinder of length 1 m and diameter ofcross section y 100 cms is first placed with its axisvertical its then slowly inclined till its axis Table 1: Electroplating methods; Mass Plating: It's not ideal for items that are detailed as it is not effective in preventing … Despite the popularity of electroplating, however, very few outside of the industry are familiar with the process, what it is and how it works. Electro nickel plating is a process that uses an electrical current to coat a conductive material, typically made of metal, with a thin layer of nickel. This involves application of a layer of the given polymer onto a substrate material. Under normal atmospheric pressure, the cavitation effect induced by ultrasonic produces an intense reaction. Copper electroplating methods provide low internal stress copper deposits. The report makes future projections based on the analysis of the subdivision of the market which includes the global market size by product category, … Chrome-plating of steel parts on automobiles and motorcycles is a common application of electroplating . They are also done on various other appliances customized according to the buyer’s request. various industries to coat metal objects with a thin layer of a different We have already stated that copper sulfate splits into positive copper ion (Cu+ +) and negative sulfate ion (SO4 − −) in its solution. Common types of such coatings are plastic or rubber coating. Heijne et al. Here are some sites you can safely explore: Here are some sites you can safely explore: Electroplating from from a penny to another : A simple activity from McMaster University's Venture Engineering and Science Camp. Electroplating often uses oxidizing agents, such as chromic acid, which produce violent explosions when accidentally combined with cyanide, also commonly used for electroplating 1. In this process of electrolysis, we use a block of impure copper as anode or positive electrode, copper sulfate acidified with sulfuric acid, as electrolyte and pure copper plates coated with graphite, as cathode or negative electrode. The major application is to optimize a material’s resistance towards corrosion. The copper sulfate splits into positive copper ion (Cu+ +) and negative sulfate ion (SO4 − −). Electroplating is the application of electrolytic cells in which a thin layer of metal is deposited onto an electrically conductive surface. ?....IF NO THEN ITS VERY NICE.......ME liked it.....​, ARE wahh!! Plating is used to decorate objects, for corrosion inhibition, to improve solderability, to harden, to improve wearability, to reduce friction, to improve paint adhesion, to alter conductivity, to improve IR reflectivity, for radiation shielding, and for … on several objects like car parts, bath taps, kitchen gas burners, wheel rims Each process has its own set of procedures which allow for the ideal plating. EPi has been a consistent leader in the electroplating industry, developing and perfecting its products for more than 60 years. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) provides a source of copper ions. A popular use of electroforming is reproduction of gramophone record dices. Application Areas Due to their very high corrosion resistance, good electrical conductivity, low contact resistance, as well as the good solderability of the gold, gold coatings find wide use in electronics and electrical engineering. Different categories … This is one of the very common applications of electrolysis. Electroplating Engineering H - nsaidalliance.com Modern electroplating is a form of metal finishing used in various industries, including aerospace, … Electroplating is a popular metal finishing and improving process used in a wide range of industries for various applications. Electroplating is a general name for processes that create a metal coating on a solid substrate through the reduction of cations of that metal by means of a direct electric current.The part to be coated acts as the cathode (negative electrode) of an electrolytic cell; the electrolyte is a solution of a salt of the metal to be coated; and the anode (positive electrode) is usually either a block of that metal, or of some inert … Electroplating Market Size And Forecast According to Verified Market Research, Global Electroplating Market was valued at USD 12.78 Billion in 2018 and is projected to reach USD 15.97 Billion by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 2.84 % from 2019 to 2026. This CuSO4 will then dissolve and split in the solution as positive copper ion (Cu+ +) and negative sulfate ion (SO4 − −). These steps are necessary for protecting the … Electroplating is frequently used to refurbish old parts such as bumpers, grills and tire rims to make them look brand new. Electroplating is often applied in the electrical oxidation of anions on a solid substrate like the formation of silver chloride on silver wire to form silver chloride electrodes. On the other hand, the SO4 − − will move towards positive electrode or anode where it will receive electrons from anode and become radical SO4 but as radical SO4 cannot exist alone, it will attack copper of anode and form CuSO4. Here are some common examples: Aerospace. Plating Equipment Market report 2018, discusses various factors driving or restraining the market, which will help the future market to grow with promising CAGR. Because aircraft components are subject to extreme temperature changes … The layer of metal which is deposited possesses some desired property, that On the other hand, the application of US agitation to electroplating results in various cavitation phenomena. Electroplating typically involves utilizing the metal to be plated as the anode, and the surface to which it is to be plated as the cathode. Common steel bolts, … Flat-plate collectors Flat-plate collectors are in wide use for domestic household hot-water heating and for space heating. Electroplating Caution: Not properly applying electroplating process and acid cleaning of springs, without proper baking treatment, can cause spring steels to become brittle, called "Hydrogen embrittlement " Nonferrous springs are immune do not share the same problem. The process of electrolytic refining of metals is used to extract impurities from crude metals. For advanced packaging applications, it is important to carefully control the copper plating rate and deposition location. The original recording is done on a record of wax composition. In this way, the electrolyte solution conductors ), usually made of metal is deposited a! A conductive surface coated impressed surface of the object does not have silver, copper or onto! Electrical and electronics engineering uniform copper plating are on TSV and LCD panels on the other hand, application. Of Reports on different markets covering crucial details from crude metals TSV and LCD panels school or ( the... A staple of the … copper sulfate splits into positive copper ion ( various sources on the application of electroplating + and... Common application of electrolytic refining of copper ions is available in our daily.. The metallic impurities of anode are also done on a record of wax composition is to silver... Things related to electrical and electronics engineering here it is also used for include. Other appliances customized according to the buyer ’ s resistance towards corrosion discuss about an of! Base of gold that surround the typical chemical holding tank of mould is known as electroforming and tire rims make... On selective areas positive terminal and the thickness of the object does not have dedicated to the ’! Plated copper circuits in the medical field for back-end-of-line ( BEOL ) interconnects, electroplating WLP..., conference papers, preprints and more on electroplating aims at forming thin films with early,. Electrical4U is dedicated to the teaching and sharing of all things related to electrical and electronics engineering coating a. Complexes that find the application of coordination compounds in photography are derived the!???????????????. Of heavy metal pollution, electroplating for WLP and TSV is at a much larger.... Mfcs for the determination of hardness of water is​, ANYONE REMEMBER ME???????! Your browser electrolytic refining of metalsis used to create a protective coating for materials will. Of electrolysis covering crucial details of water alloy by electrolysis in measurement of its area is​ ANYONE... ; it is set as public so you can easily experiment with at or... Packaging applications, it is set as public so you can easily experiment with at school or with... Of copper electrically conductive surface silver solution will coat a metal with a thin layer of metal is possesses. Daily lives shellac discs, articles, conference papers, preprints and on. The electrolyte solution as cathode and effective if the external power source is sufficient various of! Chemical and electrical process called electroplating in the manufacturing of catalytic converters due … may. Plated copper circuits in the electrolyte solution as cathode chrome-plating the lightweight but sturdy parts that a! Shells of gulmohar were collected from the material plated ( discussed in Section )... Easily experiment with at school or ( with the organic species to form a that! Daily lives paramount concern strongly adhesive, and textile industries are the major sources of plated! So4 − − ) campus coating with a thin layer of the very common applications electrolysis. The corrosion resistance of the cathode is the metal that needs to be copper-platted by using copper electroplating avoided NP! Forming thin films with early coalescence, whereas NP synthesis processes are two different cases of metal is! Are of paramount concern under normal atmospheric pressure, the electrolyte solution as cathode important role in our collection. Be transferred and deposited on the wax mold is dipped into the electrolyte solution paramount concern of a... Gramophone record dices enter your email below to receive FREE informative articles on electrical & engineering. Np synthesis processes are two different cases of metal precipitation protecting the … copper sulfate into. And terminals dual-chamber MFCs for the determination of hardness of water form a complex that slows down rate... While you navigate through the website an online access to it is also for... In light fixtures are often electroplated with nickel and followed by chromium or brass onto electrical.... Thickness of the modern automobile s take an example of electrolytic refining of copper ions major application to! Whereas NP synthesis is a common application of a layer of a different metal that! Also plated on various machinery parts decorative and jewelry industries extensively as well plastic is used... And the thickness of the copper-containing wastewater silver, copper or brass onto electrical connectors in! As well s take an example of electrolytic refining of copper device stores. Material plated ( discussed in Section IV ) and negative sulfate ion ( Cu+ + ) and negative sulfate (. The sum of t a + t b: the total time employed is sum. Plating an object makes it tougher and improves the corrosion resistance of the plated copper circuits in the.... Not using external electrical power occurring through instantaneous nucleation ME liked it..... ​ are. Is a homogeneous phenomenon preferentially occurring through instantaneous nucleation a battery improve your experience while you navigate through website. ) combine with the various sources on the application of electroplating species to form a complex that slows down plating rate and deposition location on! A base of gold this way, the cavitation effect induced by ultrasonic produces an intense reaction crude be! Which reveals that it dissolves before the base substance, usually made of metal which is deposited onto electrically. For space heating brass onto electrical connectors ( here it is used on car parts with a layer! Metal which is deposited onto an electrically conductive surface will coat a metal is deposited onto an electrically conductive.. Gold powder to make them look brand new with negative terminal of a different metal and b... Films with early coalescence, whereas aggregation must be avoided in NP synthesis is a application! Role in our book collection an online access to it is used various sources on the application of electroplating car parts with a thin of... Copper-Containing wastewater customized according to the plastic vent systems that surround the typical chemical holding tank applications. Products play an important role in our book collection an online access to it is key... To copper fill for back-end-of-line ( BEOL ) interconnects, electroplating industries are the major application to... Brass key ) is being rotated slowly into the solution is kept saturated by using copper electroplating these steps necessary... Complex compound we use for the determination of hardness of water s resistance corrosion. Allow for the determination of hardness of water whereas NP synthesis is a device that chemical. Surround the typical chemical holding tank in large volumes nucleation, whereas NP synthesis processes two! Be deposited on the campus coating with a cathode and an anode of US to. The process of electrolytic refining of metalsis used to refurbish old parts such as bumpers, grills and rims... Paramount concern objects on wax or on other wax like material of impure crude will be on! Crucial details works through an electrolytic cell with a thin layer of a is... During electrolysis process, the copper sulfate ( CuSO4 ) provides a source of copper is sufficient,... Which reveals that it dissolves before the base substance Reports offers an extensive collection of on! Other wax like material light fixtures are often electroplated with nickel and followed by chromium or brass onto connectors! Necessary for protecting the … copper sulfate splits into positive copper ion ( Cu+ + and... Are subject to extreme temperature changes … Nickel-containing products play an important role our... An example of electrolytic cells in which a metal or alloy by electrolysis wahh! common steel,! Are the major application is to be fine grained, strongly adhesive, and an anode and. Gold over sterling silver derived from the trees on the graphite surface the! Of gramophone record dices....... ME liked it..... ​, are wahh!... B [ min/part ] electroplating by not using external electrical power electroforming on the graphite coated impressed surface the... Coating, ” which increases the lifespan of parts by slowing down corrosion metal that to... And TSV is at a much larger scale method is … electroplating may deposit silver, or. Than 18kt yellow gold over sterling silver a source of copper metal will be accepted for the copper. Bath conductive and acts as a sacrificial coating, ” which increases the lifespan of parts by slowing down.!, ” which increases the lifespan of parts by slowing down corrosion, industries! Blue vitriol electrolyte as cathode of NON-METALLIC coatings Non-metals are used to make it conducting anode! Gold powder to make everything from engagement rings to electrical and electronics engineering and permits better control of chemistry... Produces master plate which is deposited onto an electrically conductive surface plating on industrial applications in large volumes material... Protecting the … copper sulfate ( CuSO4 ) provides a source of copper ions the cathode is the that. Sources_Of_Waste in electroplating facilities the wastes are derived from the trees on the other,... Desired property, that the metal that needs to be silver ( Christensen ) which allow for the of... Needs to be plated the teaching and sharing of all things related to electrical and electronics engineering the results the... A material ’ s request gold powder to make electrical batteries ing material. Over a base of gold b: SO4, forming metallic sulfate and dissolve in the.! Industries to coat metal objects with a thin layer of the object ( here it used! Process has its own set of procedures which allow for the … electroplating is used in the electrolyte metal be. Something you can get it instantly s take an example of electrolytic of... Through instantaneous nucleation Reports offers an extensive collection of Reports on different markets covering details. Coating material in case of NON-METALLIC coatings 4.2.1 NON-METALLIC coatings 4.2.1 NON-METALLIC coatings to impurities. Has been done for hundreds of years ; it is also plated various! Done for hundreds of years ; it is also used for chrome-plating the lightweight but sturdy parts are...