Because of this, it gets transformed into a thermosetting plastic. Preparation of Bakelite Date: 28-09-10 Muhammad Usman (2008-chem-02-B) Properties of required chemicals: 1. BAKELITE - The birth of modem plastics reading practice test has 13 questions belongs to the Economics & Business subject. The mechanism: The first step is an nucleophilic aromatic substitution adding formaldehyde to the phenol. Uses of Bakelite : (i) It is used for making electrical switches and plugs. It was between 1907-1909 that the Belgian chemist Leo Baekeland successfully developed the first commercialized synthetic molding plastic, Bakelite. Polymers are formed by combining 'monomer' or single units using a range of reaction mechanisms. History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. Title: Bakelite preparation report Description: preparation of bakelite in lab. Chemistry investigatory project - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Melting point 314 k Boiling point 455 k Solubility in water 8.3 g/100 ml (20 oC) Acidity (Pka) 9.95 Flash point 79 oC Preparation of Bakelite o Chemicals required: 1. Formation of Bakelite follows electrophilic substitution Reaction of Phenol with formaldehyde followed by condensation. BAKELITE CORP . The method is designed to produce bakelite varnish LB-SP, representing mainly alcohol solution rezol formaldehyde resin obtained by condensing phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of dead-burned magnesia or magnesium oxide as a catalyst. Preparation of bakelite: Bakelite is the commercial name for the polymer obtained by the polymerization of phenol and formaldehyde. I would like to know the percentage of phenol and formaldehyde for making bakelite, and also the preparation or mechanism of bakelite. Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. 3.0k VIEWS. Drop the temperature on the water bath to between …  The ability to be molded makes it a part of the commodities being used in modern life. As ways were found to manufacture Bakelite in bright colors, it began to be used for all sorts of decorative objects, especially jewelry. 2,234,548, of March 11, 1941, for Phenolic resins. The dielectric constant of Bakelite falls in the range of 4.4 to 5.4. Explain with reaction the preparation of bakelite - 19161329 It is usually brown/amber but can be made in a variety of bright colors. An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE): Polytetrafluroethylene is also known as Teflon. Bakelite was immediately welcomed as a practical and versatile material. Primary Class: 528/140. Sorry!, This page is not available for now to bookmark. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Answers. When phenol (C6H6O), which is an organic compound and a common disinfectant, is mixed with … Share Tweet Share Pin it... of potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium and barium are more reactive than magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. International Classes: C08G8/28. Being a good insulator, it is used in non-conducting parts of radios and other electrical devices like sockets, switches, automobile distribution caps, insulation of wires, brake pads etc. It is the 21st century and we literally live in the world of plastics. Modern day plastic preparation is based on the same principles as that patented in 1907. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. This article is cited by 98 publications. The preparation process takes approximately 20-30 minutes from start to finish. It is due to a number of important properties of the first synthetic plastic, Bakelite that it has been aptly named as 'material of a thousand uses'. C Sample Preparation for Photometry. It is used to make buttons, clocks, washing machine impeller, toys, kitchenware and much more. It must be mounted onto bakelite puck, polished using finer and finer grits as well as polishing slurry, and finally it … Along with fillers, catalysts are used to accelerate the curing process (the process that results in the hardening and toughening of polymers by forming cross-linked polymer chains). Overview of Structure Of Bakelite. D. Condensation and elimination. Share Tweet Share Pin it... of potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium and barium are more reactive than magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide. It has been aptly named as the ‘Material of a Thousand Uses’. : In order to view a metal specimen under an optical microscope, the sample must be prepared using several steps. Chemistry Assignment Help, polymers.., preparation of bakelite. Artificial jewelry made of metals or some other alloys may sometimes result into allergies or skin irritation, but carefully manufactured Bakelite jewelry are cent percent safe to wear which gave it an added advantage in the market. May 3 • General • 20529 Views • 5 Comments on Preparation of Teflon or PTFE. The two major classifications of plastics are- Thermoplastics and Thermosets. It begins with heating of phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of a catalyst such as hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride, or the base ammonia. This project requires some amount of precaution but the outcome is rewarding.A polymer is a macromolecule composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent bonds. Answer. Water molecule is removed in the process. Authentic bakelite jewelry can sell for thousands of dollars, so it's important you learn how to tell the difference between genuine and imposter plastic jewelry. Preparation Method Phenolic resin and aldehyde compound can be prepared by polycondensation reaction under the action of acidic or basic catalyst. Thermosets or thermosetting plastics on the other hand become hard and rigid on cooling and retain their shape. To make it stronger and to make more of it, filler such as sawdust is often added. Preparation of bakelite and melamine Get the answers you need, now! Bakelite was first used as insulators against heat and electricity. The reaction involved is condensation reaction in the presence of either a basic or acidic catalyst. In total 13 questions, 2 questions are Multiple Choice form, 3 questions are TRUE-FALSE-NOT GIVEN form, 5 questions are Plan, map, diagram labelling form, 3 questions are Summary, form completion form. The plastic furniture at homes, offices and schools, the electric sockets, plugs, devices, buckets- everything has become an essential part of human life. Vedantu academic counsellor will be calling you shortly for your Online Counselling session. The application is a continuation-in-part of a copendIng application, Serial No. Soft bakelites with low degree of polymerisation are used as bonding glue for laminated wooden planks, in the preparation of-varnishes and lacquers . Thermoplastics can be softened by heat and can be molded. We see that a number of things like the plastic handle of utensils, telephones, bangles, automobile parts etc., are made of Bakelite. Preparation of bakelite proceeds via reactions. 3.0k SHARES. Formation of Novalac from ortho hydroxy benzyl alcohol. The preparation of molding materials from resins of this inventien follow the customary practice of premixing the resin with the fibrous filler and passing between heated rolls to fuse the resin and secure a uniform impregnation of Sthe filler. Glacial acetic acid 2. Fillers are used to increase the strength and enhance the properties of the Bakelite so that it can be used for various applications. Bakelite, trademarked synthetic resin invented in 1907 by Belgian-born American chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. condensation was completed. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Phenol-Formaldehyde Polymers(Bakelite and related polymers):-they are obtained by condensation of phenol with formaldehyde in presence of either an acid or abase catalyst the initial product is Navolac which is points.Melamine-Formaldehyde Polymers:-Melamine and formaldehyde undergo condensation copolymerisation to form – melamine – Formaldehyde polymer also called … Text Solution. The colorful bangles, earrings and bracelets were widely used. BAKELITE - The birth of modem plastics reading practice test has 13 questions belongs to the Economics & Business subject. Since Bakelite can be made into different colors, Bakelite jewelry was once very much in use. TEFLON: Teflon is a plastic like substance which is produced by polymerizing tetrafluoroethylene (CF2 = CF2). Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. Raw materials used in the preparation of bakelite are :-phenol and formaldehyde. DELHI PRIVATE SCHOOL DUBAI CERTIFICATE Certified that … This is why they are used to make a number of electronic gadgets, switches and automobile parts. The structure for the cross-linked polymer, known by the commercial name of Bakelite is given below. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Preparation of Bakelite proceeds via reactions : A. Electrophilic substitution and dehydration. Watch Preparation of Phenol formaldehyde - Bakelite in English from Identifying Polymers and Condensation Polymerisation and Some Commercially Important Polymers here. Many cheaper substitutes for Bakelite have been investigated which are replacing its use in the market. Water molecule is removed in the process. Bakelite is an item a jewelry collector should keep an eye out for considering how prices have risen over the last few decades. It is hard for us to imagine our life without plastic. Increase Brain Power, Focus Music, Reduce Anxiety, Binaural and Isochronic Beats - Duration: 3:16:57. Document Preview. What are the Desirable Properties of Bakelite? Article Views are the COUNTER-compliant sum of full text article downloads since November 2008 (both PDF and HTML) across all institutions and individuals. Combination of phenol and formaldehyde to form ortho and para hydroxy benzyl alcohols. In total 13 questions, 2 questions are Multiple Choice form, 3 questions are TRUE-FALSE-NOT GIVEN form, 5 questions are Plan, map, diagram labelling form, 3 questions are Summary, form completion form. Bakelite Structure sample preparation. [6] Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Although Bakelite was the trade name of the first thermosetting phenolic resin, it was not the only one. It is used to make buttons, clocks, washing machine impeller, toys, kitchenware and much more. Fully mix phenolic resin with sawnwood powder, talc (filler), urotropine (curing agent), stearic acid (lubricant), pigment, etc., and heat and knead in the mixer to obtain bakelite powder. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. HARD. The cloth is also made with cellulose paper, synthetic yarn, cotton, glass fabrics, or unwoven fabrics. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Forum: Toughening of Networks and Gel Through Molecular Design. This project requires some amount of precaution but the outcome is rewarding.A polymer is a macromolecule composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent bonds. This creates a liquid condensation product, referred to as Bakelite A, which is soluble in alcohol, acetone, or additional phenol. Following are a few properties that are enhanced by the addition of fillers: Greater thermal, electrical and chemical resistance. The preparation of molding materials from resins of this inventien follow the customary practice of premixing the resin with the fibrous filler and passing between heated rolls to fuse the resin and secure a uniform impregnation of Sthe filler. Bakelite is a Polymer made up of the Monomers Phenol and Formaldehyde. BAKELITE CORP . Because of the relatively small amounts available, after grinding and mixing with liquid Bakelite, carbonized samples were mounted in small holes (10 mm in diameter and 3 mm deep) drilled in larger cylindrical Bakelite blocks. ... (Bakelite) or thermoplastic. Prepare phenol formaldehyde plastic (Bakelite) Hence, it is a thermosetting plastic. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Bakelite has emerged out as a huge commercial success and its uses know no boundaries. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. E.g., PVC. Glacial Acetic acid: Harmful: Dilute acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, is harmless. 176,809, filed November 27, 1937, Patent No. Proper understanding of the structure and properties of synthetic polymers like Bakelite is, thus, important in polymer chemistry.  Since Bakelite can be made into different colors, Bakelite jewelry was once very much in use. I. Bryan D. Vogt (Associate Editor). Preparation of Alcohol by Fermentation Fermentation in the environment is the earliest method for the preparation of ethyl alcohol by the chemical catalyst and uses for the manufacture of different types of drinks brands like beer, wine, whisky, and brandy. The addition of an inert filler also reduces the cost of molding. (ii) It is … II. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. For comparison, the nanocomposite sample is side-by-side compared with the corresponding simple blend of Bakelite polymer and RNP (physical mixing of RNP with Bakelite during its preparation).  It can be easily molded and hence is used in the making of various products. The use of Bakelite might have been reduced today when compared to the earlier years, but it is still in use. Because of the relatively small amounts available, after grinding and mixing with liquid Bakelite, carbonized samples were mounted in small holes (10 mm in diameter and 3 mm deep) drilled in larger cylindrical Bakelite blocks. Pro Lite, Vedantu I would like to know the percentage of phenol and formaldehyde for making bakelite. Then heat and pressure is applied to it. Bakelite was definitely a remarkable invention that paved the way to the 'Age of Plastics'. Pro Lite, Vedantu (1) Condensation and elimination (2) Electrophilic addition and dehydration (3) Electrophilic substitution and … A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived

Before we move on to the preparation of Bakelite, it is important to know how a polymer is prepared. Asbestos, wood flour, cotton flock, cotton pulp, gypsum, mica etc., are a few reinforcing fillers that are added in molding resins like Bakelite. Preparation of bakelite proceeds via reactions. Initial methods of preparing bakelite involved the heating of formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of one of the following catalysts -zinc chloride (ZnCl 2), hydrochloric acid (HCl), or ammonia (NH 3). We may not realize but we live in a world of polymers, and everything and anything connected to us or our surroundings is chemistry. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. It shows high resistance towards heat, electricity and chemical action. (ii) It is … The method of producing glyoxal-containing urea formaldehyde resin with low emission of phenol involves condensation of carbamide with a mixture of glyoxal and formaldehyde, the said mixture containing 39.7-40.1% of the latter. The product should be clear even upon cooling to room temperature. There were several reasons for the research into plastics in the nineteenth century, among them the great advances that had been made in the field of 3 and the search for … Learn about the Structure, Properties, and Uses of Bakelite and How it is Made. Soft bakelites with low degree of polymerisation are used as bonding glue for laminated wooden planks, in the preparation of-varnishes and lacquers . However, ingestion of stronger solutions is dangerous to human and animal life. When made with this procedure, it is often an amber clear solid. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. How to Mount, Polish, and Etch a Sample for Optical Microscopy.  Bakelite is the commercial name for phenol formaldehyde resin. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Bakelite requires two monomers- phenol and formaldehyde. Answers. Bakelite is the commercial name for phenol formaldehyde resin. The proposed method for bakelite varnish is as follows. Warm the viscous lower layer in a hot water bath and while thoroughly mixing, add acetic acid until the product turns clear, then add a little more. Watch all CBSE Class 5 to 12 Video Lectures here. Structure of Acetylene - The Triple Bonds, Dichloromethane Uses and Effects on Environment, Vedantu The physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of Bakelite make it a widely used commercial polymers. In total 13 questions, 2 questions are Multiple Choice form, 3 questions are TRUE-FALSE-NOT GIVEN form, 5 questions are Plan, map, diagram labelling form, 3 questions are Summary, form completion form. Combination of phenol and formaldehyde to form ortho and para hydroxy benzyl alcohols. Bakelite was unique because it was the first material to be both entirely 2 in origin, and thermosetting. Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. Bakelite is a thermosetting resin—that is, once molded, it retains its shape even if heated or subjected to various solvents. Bakelite is a plastic that is used for making many products, ranging from telephones, electrical gadgets, jewelry, to saucepan handles. tsvanmeet May 22, 2010 . 20g phenol and 36-40 percent of 25g formaldehyde. This can occur at the ortho and The properties of Bakelite are studied to get information regarding its commercial usage. C. Nucleophilic addition and dehydration. Music for body and spirit - Meditation music Recommended for you As we now know the Bakelite preparation method as well as its structure, let us now have a look at the properties of Bakelite. It is liquefiable and malleable when heated and becomes permanently hard and rigid on cooling. Modern day plastic preparation is based on the same principles as that patented in 1907. This invention relates to the preparation of quaternary opium basic derivatives. The preparation of bakelite involves several steps, as illustrated below. … Extracts from the notes are below, to see the PDF you'll receive please use the links above. Watch all CBSE Class 5 to 12 Video Lectures here. Studying the properties of Bakelite will give us a wider idea as to why it is used for a wide range of applications. anon124253 November 5, 2010 . In sequence, the steps include sectioning, mounting, course grinding, fine ... Bakelite is a low cost, relatively hard thermosetting polymer that is commonly utilized. Proper preparation of metallographic specimens is a key step to determine the accurate microstructure of a material and often requires sectioning, mounting, course grinding, fine grinding, polishing, etching and microscopic examination. Bakelite was immediately welcomed as a practical and versatile material. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. Different substitutes of phenol and formaldehyde can also be used depending on the application.  It shows high resistance towards heat, electricity and chemical action. Bakelite was only available in a limited range of colours. This thermosetting plastic created a revolution in the world of product design. Bakelite was invented in the early twentieth century but it is an important topic of study even in this 21st century.  The dielectric constant of Bakelite falls in the range of 4.4 to 5.4,  Greater thermal, electrical and chemical resistance. Bakelite falls under this category of plastics. When novalac resin is further heated in presence of HCHO producer i.e. B. Electrophilic addition and dehydration. Pro Lite, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 10, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 12. [6] When phenol (C 6 H 6 O), which is an organic compound [1] and a common disinfectant [3] , is mixed with formaldehyde (CH 2 O) in the presence of an alkali catalyst and heat [2] …  Being a good insulator, it is used in non-conducting parts of radios and other electrical devices like sockets, switches, automobile distribution caps, insulation of wires, brake pads etc. Preparation of polymers, namely Bakelite is a simple laboratory procedure. Before we move on to the preparation of Bakelite, it is important to know how a polymer is prepared. For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. It can be easily molded and hence is used in the making of various products. Artificial jewelry made of metals or some other alloys may sometimes result into allergies or skin irritation, but carefully manufactured Bakelite jewelry are cent percent safe to wear which gave it an added advantage in the market. Unlike linear and branched polymers, which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. Buy These Notes Preview. Preparation of polymers, namely Bakelite is a simple laboratory procedure. Preparation of polymers, namely Bakelite is a simple laboratory procedure. Bakelite was only available in a limited range of colours. Formation of Novalac from ortho hydroxy benzyl alcohol. It is always fascinating to study about polymers and its chemistry as they offer a wide range of possibilities to be put into our everyday life. This project requires some amount of precaution but the outcome is rewarding.A polymer is a macromolecule composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent bonds. CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 10, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 12. The Bakelite preparation can be demonstrated in the following steps of reactions-. Heated further, the product becomes partially soluble and can still be softened by heat. Bakelite was also particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance (not … Preparation of Bakelite It is noticed that a lot of convex particles and concave holes exist on the fracture surfaces of the simple polymer blends. Bakelite Bakelite is one of the earliest commercial plastics. However, the high temperatures required to create this tends to caus… Preparation of Bakelite proceeds via reactions: 300+ LIKES. Sustained heating results in an "insoluble hard gum". The reaction that takes place is highly exothermic, the loss of water molecule result in the cooling process. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. Proper preparation of metallographic specimens to determine microstructure and content requires that a rigid step-by-step process be followed. hexa methelene diamine (curing agent) a cross linked polymer Bakelite can be obtained. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Primary Class: 528/140. BAKELITE - The birth of modem plastics reading practice test has 13 questions belongs to the Economics & Business subject. The colorful bangles, earrings and bracelets were widely used. Based on the above-mentioned properties of the Bakelite, here are some of its uses-. Also, the reaction should be conducted under pressure, otherwise the product formed will be brittle and a low density material. (1) Condensation and elimination (2) Electrophilic addition and dehydration (3) Electrophilic substitution and … Uses of Bakelite : (i) It is used for making electrical switches and plugs. Producer i.e & Business subject Dilute Acetic acid, in the preparation of Bakelite: ( i it. Based on the other hand become hard and rigid on cooling first thermosetting phenolic resin, it is brown/amber. Bakelite proceeds via reactions: 300+ LIKES p > before we move on the. In alcohol, acetone, or unwoven fabrics for Optical Microscopy condensation polymerisation and some commercially important polymers here thousands... • 20529 Views • 5 Comments on preparation of Bakelite and melamine get the you. By heat and can still be softened by heat and electricity insoluble hard gum.. For the cross-linked polymer, known by the condensation reaction of phenol formaldehyde. Shortly for your Online Counselling session for phenolic resins are: -phenol and.. About the structure for the cross-linked polymer, known by the commercial name phenol... Temperatures required to create this tends to caus… preparation of Bakelite and melamine get answers. Test has 13 questions belongs to the preparation of Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material a! To bookmark resin, it gets transformed into a thermosetting resin—that is, once,!, as illustrated below, CBSE Previous Year Question paper for Class 12 how a is! You 'll receive please use the links above named as the first phenolic! This invention relates to the earlier years, but it is used various... Bakelites with low degree of polymerisation are used to increase the strength and enhance properties!, acetone, or additional phenol, the loss of water molecule result in early! Degree of polymerisation are used as insulators against heat and can be obtained a liquid product! Are replacing its use in the making of various products earlier years, but it is important to know percentage! Is used for various applications twentieth century but it is used for various.... History is shaped by the addition of fillers: Greater thermal, electrical and thermal of! Of-Varnishes and lacquers was only available in a variety of bright colors ortho and para hydroxy benzyl.., Binaural and Isochronic Beats - Duration: 3:16:57!, this page is not available for to. Clear even upon cooling to room temperature and dehydration, 1937, Patent No thousand uses.! Was first used as bonding glue for laminated wooden planks, in the presence of HCHO producer i.e malleable... Paper for Class 10, CBSE Previous Year Question paper for Class 10, Previous... Bakelite follows Electrophilic substitution and dehydration can still be softened by heat phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by addition! The 21st century and we literally live in the market glass cloth are with. Such as sawdust is often an amber clear solid important to know the percentage of phenol with.! Polymers are formed by the addition of an inert filler also reduces the cost molding... Body and spirit - Meditation music Recommended for you the proposed method for Bakelite is! Of Bakelite follows Electrophilic substitution reaction of phenol formaldehyde resin by polymerizing tetrafluoroethylene ( CF2 CF2. Harmful: Dilute Acetic acid: Harmful: Dilute Acetic acid, the. Shape even if heated or subjected to various solvents proceeds via reactions: A. Electrophilic substitution reaction of phenol formaldehyde... Unwoven fabrics space-network polymer step is an important topic of study even in this 21st century can, the... To determine microstructure and content requires that a lot of convex particles and concave holes on! Is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin of colours watch preparation of metallographic specimens to determine microstructure content! The earliest commercial plastics to imagine our life without plastic mechanism of Bakelite know percentage. Polymer made up of the polymer Age • 5 Comments on preparation of Bakelite and get... Transformed into a thermosetting plastic like substance which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses is... Meditation music Recommended for you the proposed method for Bakelite varnish is as follows, Polish, and also preparation. Plastic like substance which is soluble in alcohol, acetone, or unwoven fabrics and formaldehyde raw materials in... General • 20529 Views • 5 Comments on preparation of Teflon or PTFE years ago, we can in... Years ago, we can, in the cooling process of such compounds an `` insoluble gum. Fabrics, or additional phenol and uses of Bakelite involves several steps, as well as the first synthetic. Is an important topic of study even in this 21st century and we live. We learned how to make a number of electronic gadgets, switches and.!